Vulcanization Accelerators

Sulfur, by itself, is a slow vulcanizing agent. Large amounts of sulfur are necessary high temperature and long heating periods and one obtains an unsatisfactory crosslinking efficiency with unsatisfactory strength and aging properties. The multiplicity of vulcanization effects demanded can not be achieved with one universal substance, a large number of diverse materials is necessary. Accelerators need metal oxides for the development of their full activity, zinc oxide (ZnO)  is the best additive.

The most important organic vulcanization accelerators can be summarized in the following classes.

Classes

abbrevation

Mercapto-accelerators 

        2-Mercaptobenzothiazole

     Zinc-2- mercaptobenzothiazole

     Dibenzothizyl disulfide

Sulfenamide-accelerators

     N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothaiazylsulfenamide

     N-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazylsulfenamide

     2-Benzothiazyl-N-sulfenemorpholide

     N,N-dicyclohexyl-2-benzothiazylsulfenamide

Thiuram accelerators

     Tetramethythiuram disulfide

     Tetramethythiuram monosulfide

     Tetraethylthiuram disulfide

     Dimethydiphenylthiuram disulfide

     Dipentamethylenthiuram tetrasulfide

Dithiocarbamate acceterators

     Bismuth dimethyldithiocarbamate

     Copper dimethyldithiocarbamate

     Cadmium pentamethylenedithiocarbamate    

     Lead dimethyldithiocarbamate

     Tellurium dimethyldithiocarbamate

     Selenium dimethyldithiocarbamate

     Sodium dibutyldithiocarbamate

     Sodium dimethydithiocarbamate

     Piperidine pentamethylenedithiocarbamate

     Zinc dibenzyldithiocarbamate

     Zinc diethyldithiocarbamate

     Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate

Xanthate Accelerators

     Zinc isopropylxanthate

     Zinc butylxanthate

     Sodium isopropylxanthate

Dithiocarbamylsulfenamide

     N-oxydiethylenedithiocarbamyl-N’-oxydiethylene sulfonamide

Guanidine Acceterators

     Diphynylgyanidine

     Di-o-tolylguanidine

     o-Tolylbiguanidine

Amine Accelerators

     Butyraldehydeaniline

     Tricrotonylidenetetramine

      Hexanmethylenetetramine

     Polyethylenepolyamines

     Cyclohexylethylamine

     Dibutylamine

Sufer Donors

     2-Benzothiazole-N-morpholyldisulfide

     Dimorpholine disulfide

Vulcanization Retarders

     Benzoic acid

     Salicylic acid

 

MBT

ZMBT

MBTS

 

CBS

TBBS

MBS

DCBS

 

TMTD

TMTM

TETD

MPTD

DPTT

 

BiDMC

CuDMC

CD5MC

PbDMC

TeDMC

SeDMC

NaDBC

NaDMC

PPC

ZBEC

ZDEC

ZDMC

 

ZIX

ZBX

NaIX

 

OTOS

 

DPG

DOTG

OTBG

 

BAA

TCT

HEXA

PEP

CEA

DBA

 

ZDBP

CuIDP

 

BES

SCS

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